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Transducer play an important role in instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process should be converted from a single form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another.

It is a device which converts one form of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical energy is changed into an electric energy.

Varieties of transducer:

There are two varieties of transducers, they may be: Active transducers and Passive transducers

Active transducers: torque sensor is actually a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electrical power by itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and more are the most effective samples of the transducers

Passive transducers: Passive transducer is actually a device which converts the given non-electricity into electrical power by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are definitely the examples for the Passive transducers.

The piezoelectric effect is located in some materials (such as quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is used to the structure, it produces an electric powered charge and, when an electric field is applied, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” hails from the Greek word for pressure.

Piezo Transducer:

A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or vice versa. Basically any kind of piezo mechanism may be called button load cell. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to operate voltage changes and therefore can be used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are used in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The advantage of a piezo speaker spanning a magnetically driven speaker lies in the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness in the piezo ceramic plates that are used to move the speaker diaphragm film.

Sonar and ultrasound imaging are also based upon piezoelectrics. In cases like this, the ultrasonic transducers are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly increases the amplitude while decreasing the input power simultaneously, i.e. the system is operated at its highest efficiency.

Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:

In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are often known as piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is normally employed to generate forces or to position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are generally operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.

Piezo resistive sensors:

Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors that are very widely used for pressure sensing applications. They may be sometimes used together with piezo actuators to supply position feedback or force feedback, for example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive signifies that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors do not generate a charge (energy) plus they cannot convert mechanical in hkjrzk energy and the other way round. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a great option for entry-level systems. Other sensors are available when leading edge performance is necessary.

Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:

If operated underneath the right conditions, the newest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators could work for 10’s of vast amounts of cycles.

Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:

Because of the fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a wonderful selection for active vibration cancellation.

Here, a vibration sensor is required to provide the controller the right information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration by providing the best amplitude and phase output towards the piezo actuator. The sensor could even be load cell, configured to answer strain or pressure.

Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:

Any sort of rapid actuation may cause vibrations in a work piece. Based on Newton’s laws, this means, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the better reactive forces it is going to cause. In case these forces are unwanted, another piezo mechanical system having a counter mass can be integrated and driven with a signal of the opposite phase. With some fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel the other person out as well as the work piece can now move quickly but without exerting any force on the surrounding structures. This trick is frequently used in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.

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